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Descriptions of occupations: mines and m 




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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 



DESCRIPTIONS OF OCCUPATIONS 



MINES AND MINING 



PREPARED FOR THE 

UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 
BY THE 

UNITED STATES BUREAU OF MINES 
AND THE 

UNITED STATES BUREAU OF 
LABOR STATISTICS 







V. 



WASHINGTON j)\\ 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1918 



INDEX 
A. 

Page. 

Accountant^ mine. 13 

Air man. (See Brattice man, coal mine.) 

Amalgamator, metal mine. 13 

Analyst. (See Assayer.) 

Assayer, metal mine 13 

Assistant miner. (See Machine helper, coal mine and metal 

mine.) 
Auditor. (See Accountant, mine.) 

B. 

Bank boss. (See Pit boss; Foreman, coal mine.) 
Banksman. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 
Bam boss. (See Stable boss.) 
Bam man. (See Stable boss.) 

Barrow man. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Barrow man. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Blaster. (See Shot firer.) 
Bookkeeper. (.See Accountant, mine.) 

Boss. (See Driver boss; Fire boss ; Pit boss ; Shift boss; Stable 
boss.) 

Boss miner, coal mine 14 

Bottom eager. (See Bottomer; Cager.) 
Bottom digger. (See Brusher.) 

Bottomer 14 

Braddisher. (See Brattice man.) 

Brakeman. (See Laborer, imderground, coal mine.) 

Brakeman. (See Laborer, undergroimd, metal mine.) 

Brattice man, coal mine 14 

Breaker boy, coal mine 15 

Breaker man, ore milUng. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 

Brusher, coal mine . 15 

Bucker. (See Laborer, imderground, coal mine.) 

C. 

Cager 15 

Cage tender. (See Cager.) 

Canvas man, coal mine. (See Brattice man.) 

Car dropper. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Car dropper. (See Laborer, undergroimd, metal mine.) 

Car rider. (See Laborer, imderground, coal mine.) 

Car trimmer. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Chain boy. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Chain runner. See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Change house man -. 16 

Charge man. (See Shot firer.) 

Check puller. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

(3) 



Page. 

Check puller. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) - 
Check viewer. (See Laborer, underground; also Laborer, sur- 
face, coal mine.) 
Check viewer. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Checkweigher. (See Laborer, underground; also Laborer, sur- 
face, coal mine.) 
Checkweigher. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Chemist. (See Assayer, metal mine.) 

Chipper. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine ; also Ore dresser.) 
Chute man. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Clean-up man. (See Waste man.) 
Clipper-off. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Clipper-off. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Clipper-on. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Clipper-on. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Coal cutter. (See Miner, coal.) 
Coal digger. (See Miner, coal.) 
Coal getter. (See Miner, coal.) 
Coal hewer. (See Miner, coal.) 

Coal passer. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Coal trimmer. ' (See Laborer, underground; also Laborer, sm*- 

face, coal mine.) 
Coal whipper. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Cobber man, ore milling. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 
Contract man, coal mine. (See Boss miner.) 
Contract miner. (See Boss miner.) 
Copper picker. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 
Core-drill operator. (See Driller, diamond; aZso Well driller.) 
Coupler. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Coupler. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Crusher man. (.See Mill man.) 
Cutter. (See Miner, coal.) 

D. 

Deputy surveyor. (See Mineral surveyor.) 

Diamond setter 17 

Digger. (See Miner, coal.) 

DiUy boy. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

DiUy boy. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

Dirt scratcher. (See Brusher.) 

Door tender. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Door trapper. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

DriUer, diamond . 17 

DriUer, hand 17 

Driller, machine 18 

Driller, well. (See Well driller.) 

Driver. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Driver. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

Driver, boss 18 

Dry boss. (See Change house man.) 

Dry man. (See Change house man.) 

Dukey rider. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Dumper. (See Cager; also Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 



E. 

Efficiency miner. (See Boss miner.) Page. 

Engineer, metallurgical 18 

Engineer, mining 18 

Engineer, safety 19 

Engine man. (See Puffer boy.) 
Entryman. (See Miner, coal.) 

F. 
Face boss. (See Pit boss.) 

Fire boss, coal mine. 20 

Fireman. (See Fire boss.) 

Fire viewer. (See Fire boss.) 

Flat man. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Flat trimmer. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

Foreman, coal mine 20 

Foreman, metal mine 20 

G. 

Gang rider. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Gas inspector. (See Fire boss; Inspector, coal mine.) 
Gas man. (See Fire boss.) 
General manager. (See Manager.) 
General superintendent. (See Manager.) 
Greaser. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Greaser. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Ground man. (See Brusher.) 

H. 

Handy man 21 

Hauler. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Hauler. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

Headsman. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Heap keeper. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

Helper. (See Handy man; Laborer; Machine helper, coal 

mine; Machine helper, metal mine.) 
Helper-up. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Helper-up. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Hitcher. (See Bottomer; Cager.) 
Hitcher-on. (See Bottomer; Cager.) 



Inside foreman. (/See Pit boss ; Shift boss.) 

Inspector, coal mine 21 

Inspector, metal mine 22 



Jack setter. (See Machine helper, coal and metal mines; 

Miner's helper.) 
Jerry man. (See Waste man.) 
Jigger. (iSee Jig runner.) 
Jig runner - — 22 



Page. 
Jig tender. (See Jig runner.) 
Jim-around. (See Handy man.) 
Jumper. (See Driller, hand.) 

K. 

Kibble filler. {See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

L. 

Laborer, surface, coal mine 23 

Laborer, surface, metal mine 23 

Laborer, underground, coal mine 23 

Laborer, underground, metal mine 24 

Lamp cleaner. (See Lamp man.) 
Lamp keeper. {See Lamp man.) 

Lamp man, coal mine 24 

Lamp repairer. {See Lamp man.) 

Lander. {See Cager.) 

Launder man, ore milling. {See Laborer, surface, metal mine; 

also Mill man.) 
Load dropper. {See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Load dropper. {See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Loader. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Loader. {See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

M. 

Machine helper, coal mine 25 

Machine helper, metal mine . 25 

Machine man, coal mine 25 

Machine miner. {See Driller, machine; Machine man.) 
Machine miner's assistant. {See Handy man; Machine helper.) 
Machine runner. {See Driller, machine; Machine man.) 
Machine tender. {See Handy man; Machine helper.) 

Manager 25 

Material man. {See Warehouseman.) 
Metallurgist. {See Engineer, metallurgical.) 

Mill man, ore dressing, l 26 

Mine captain, metal mine 26 

Mine clerk. {See Timekeeper.) 

Mine examiner. {See Inspector, coal mine; Inspector, metal 

mine; Fire boss.) 
Mine expert. {See Engineer, mining.) 
Mine foreman. {See Foreman, coal mine; Foreman, metal 

mine.) 
Mine inspector. {See Engineer, safety; Fire boss; Inspector, 

coal mme; Inspector, metal mine.) 
Mine laborer. {See Laborer.) 
Mine manager. {See Foreman, coal mine.) 

Mineral surveyor . . . 27 

Miner, boss. {See Boss miner, coal mine.) 

Miner, coal mine., . 27 

Miner, metal mine 27 

Miner's helper, metal mine . 27 

Mine sampler. {See Sampler.) 



Page. 

Motorman, electric 28 

Mucker. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

Mule driver. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Mule driver. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

Mule feeder. (See Stable boss.) 

Mule skinner. (See Laborer, underground; Laborer, surface, 

coal mine.) 
Mule skinner. (See Laborer, vmderground; Laborer, surface, 

metal mine.) 
MuUocker. (See Laborer, imderground, metal mine.) 

N. 

Nipper. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

O. 

Odd man. (See Handy man.) 

Oiler. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Oiler. (See Laborer, imderground, metal mine.) 

On-setter. (See Bottomer; Cager.) 

Operating engineer. (See Pump nian, deep well.) 

Ore dresser 28 

Ore sorter. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 

P. 
Pack builder, coal mine. - 29 

Packer. (See Pack builder.) 

Patcher. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Piicker. (See Breaker boy.) 

Pig tailer. (See Laborer, imderground, coal mine.) 

Pig tailer. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

Pillar boss. (See Pit boss.) 

Pillar man. (See Pack builder.) 

Pipe fitter. (See Pipe man.) 

Pipe man, coal mine - 29 

Pipe man, metal mine. (See Pipe man, coal mine.) 

Pit boss, coal mine - 29 

Pitcher. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Pitman. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 
Pitman. (See Pump man.) 
Pit Wright. (See Pump man.) 
Plugman. (See Pump man.) 

Powder man. -. 30 

Powder monkey. (See Powder man.) 
Powder nipper. (See Powder man.) 
Property man. (See Warehouseman.) 

Puffer boy 30 

Pump man, deep well — 30 

Pusher. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Pusher. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Putter. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 



R. 

Paw. 

Eepair man 31 

Rib boss. {See Pit boss.) 

Rider. {See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Ripper. {See Brusher.) 

Roadman. {See Repair man; Wasteman.) 

Rock man. {See Brusher.) 

RoUey man. {See Repair man.) 

Roll man, ore miUing. {See Laborer, surface, metal mine; 

also Milt man.) 
Rope rider. {See Laborer, undergrovmd, coal mine.) 
Roustabout. {See Handy man.) 
RuUer. {See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Runner. {See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

S. 

Safety man. {See Engineer, safety.) 

Sampler 31 

Screen ape. {See Screen man.) 

Screen er. {See Screen man.) 

Screen man 31 

Set rider. {See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Shaft man. {See Sinker.) 
Shaft sinker. {See Sinker.) 

Shift boss, metal mine 32 

Shifter. {See Repair man; also Shift boss, metal mine.) 

Shot firer, coal mine 32 

Shot lighter. {See Shot firer.) 
Shoveler. {See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 
Shoveler. {See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 
Shoveler. {See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Shoveler. {See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Single jacker. {See Driller, hand.) 

Sinker 33 

Sink man. {See Sinker.) 

Skip tender. {See Cager.) 

Slate picker. {See Breaker boy.) 

Snapper. {See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Spragger. {See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Spud setter. {See Mine surveyor.) 

Stable boss 33 

Stacker. {See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

Stamp man 33 

Station tender. {See Bottomer.) 

Steam engine man. {See Pump man, deep well.) 

Steel boy. {See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

Stone man. {See Brusher.) 

Sump man. {See Timberman.) 

Superintendent. {See Foreman, metal mine; Manager; 

Mine captain.) 
Supply man. {See Warehouseman.) 

Surveyor, mine _ 34 

Swamper. {See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 



T. 

Page. 

Tableman. (/See Vanner man ; Millman.) 
Tailinp man, Ore Milling. (See Millman.) 
Tally boy. (See Laborer, underground ; Laborer, surface, coal 

mine.) 
Tally boy. (See Laborer, underground, m^tal mine.) 
Tally shouter. (See Laborer, underground; Laborer, surface, 

coal mine.) 
Tally shouter. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

Timberman .. 34 

Timber packer. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

Timekeeper 35 

Tipple man. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

Tool nipper. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

Top eager. (See Cager.) 

Topman. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

Topman. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 

Tracklayer. (See Trackman.) 

Trackman 35 

Trailer. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Trailer. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Train boy. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Trammer. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Trapper. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Trapper boy. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Tr imm er. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 
Trip rider. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Trmler. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Tub rider. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Twin boy. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

U. 

Underground foreman. (See Pit boss ; Shift boss.) 

V. 
Vanner man 36 

W. 

Wagoner. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Wagoner. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Waller. (See Pack builder.) 

Warehouseman 36 

Washhouse man. (See Change house man.) 

Waste man 36 

Well driller - 37 

Wheeler. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
Wheeler. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
Whim driver. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 
Whim driver. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 
Whipper. (See. Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
87505°— 18 2 



CODE WORDS 



Code word. 


Page. 


Code word. 


Page. 


Afire 


13 
13 
13 
14 
14 
14 
15 
15 
15 
16 
17 
17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
19 
19 
20 
20 
20 
21 
21 
22 
22 
23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
25 
25 


Mealy 


25 


After..- - 


Mean 


25 


Again 


Meat '. 


26 


Bond 


Meaty 


26 


Book .... 


Medal 


27 


Booty : 

Borax 


Meek 


27 


Melee - 


27 


Both . 


Melon 


28 


City 


Melt 


27 


Civic 


Obit ...... 


28 


Debit 


Pet 


29 


Debt 


Petty 


29 


Decay 


Pew - 


29 


Deck 


Phase 


30 


Diary 


Phial... 

Pouch 


30 


Elder . 


30 


Elect. 


Rate 


31 


Elegy. 


Shake 

Shako 

Shaky 


31 


Felt 


31 




32 


Fend 


ShaU 


32 


Happy 


Sham . ... 


33 


Ilium 


Shame 


33 


lU.... 


Shank 


33 


Jaunt 


Sift .. 


34 


Later 


Testy 


34 


Lath .. 


Texas 


35 


Lathe 


Than 


35 


Latin 


Valid . 


36 


Laud - 


Wait 


37 


Mead 


Want . 


36 


Meal 


War 


36 









DESCRIPTIONS OF OCCUPATIONS: MINES AND MINING 

PREPAKBD FOE THE V. S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BY THE TJ. S. BUREAU OP 
MINES AND THE U. S. BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS. 

INTRODUCTORY STATEMENT. 

These descriptions of occupations covering mines and mining are 
not intended to be a complete glossary ^ with definitions for each local 
term which may be used in the various mining districts. The object 
is to furnish detailed descriptions of such occupations as require 
special experience, training, or education in order to be able to do 
the work intelligently and efficiently. All such occupations as re- 
quire but little instruction and experience have been referred to as 
"Laborer, underground, coal mine," " laborer, underground, metal mine," 
"Laborer, surface, coal mine," and " Laborer, surface, metal mine." The 
underlying principle upon which this distinction is made is based 
upon the fact that many of the occupations at the mines may be re- 
cruited, without any trouble whatever, from the average laborer, the 
only condition being that he is willing to work underground at coal 
mines or underground at metal mines. 

• A glossary of over 20,000 terms used In mines and mining will be published by the 
Bureau of Mines as Bulletin 173, entitled, " A Glossary of the Mining and Mineral 
Industry," in which will be found brief definitions of terms, occupational and otherwise, 
used in the coal and metal mines in English-speaking countries. 

(11) 



PREFATORY STATEMENT 
IMPORTANT 

The objects of these descriptions are to furnish definitions of the various occu- 
pations, so that specifications for help may he made uniform, and to furnish a 
means by which the prospective employee may be informed as to the nature of 
the work he will be expected to do. 

Each occupation has been described under the most generally accepted title. 
The descriptions have been carefully prepared with the view of stating clearly 
and briefly what each occupation requires in the way of performance and quali- 
fications, so that a foreman or employment manager can readily specify the 
help wanted and can pick the worker best fitted to fill the position. 

Without such standard definitions advertisements and appeals from the vari- 
ous Government departments or from a central employment agency would lose 
their affectiveness, especially when the recruiting is nation wide. 

The statement of actual requirements under the lieading of " Schooling " does 
not have reference to those already working, but should be interpreted to mean 
that no one should enter the specified position at the present time without having 
the equivalent of the stated schooling. " Common school " signifies the comple- 
tion of the common school course. 

Direction's for Using Descriptions and Code Words 

IKSEZ: In order to find any given occupational description use the index. 

COSE WORD: Each description has a code word, which, when communicated 
to any person who has access to these descriptions of occupations, will enable 
him to ascertain exactly what is called for by referring to the description 
indicated by the code word. (See Code words.) 

If an employee is wanted who has training sufiicient to do work in any two 
or more occupations described, the code words of these descriptions should be 
combined to indicate the combination of qualifications; for example: The code 
word designating a Driller, hand, and a Driller, machine (see pp. 17 and 18) 
would be Decay-Deck. 

(12) 



DESCRIPTIONS OF OCCUPATIONS 

ACCOUNTANT, MINE ATIRE 

Kindred Occupations: Clerk; Mine clerk; Paymaster; Timekeeper. 

Description: A mine accountant keeps a complete set of books, in which 
are shown itemized costs of various operations at the mine, as labor, ma- 
terial, haulage, mining, milling, etc. Under his supervision, the pay rolls 
are handled by the timekeeper and paymaster, their reports being turned 
in to him for proper distribution. 

Qualifications: He should have thorough knowledge of single and double 
entry bookkeeping and all the details connected therewith, as well as a 
knowledge of banking and mining. He should have good health, good 
eyesight, ordinary ability,, and honesty. He should have had experience 
in handling store accounts, bank accounts, and labor pay rolls, and in 
keeping records of property. 

Schooling: High school ; business college. 

AIR UAN. (S.ee Brattice man, coal mine.) 

AHALGASIATOR, METAL MINE AFTER 

Kindred Occupations : Battery man ; Stamp man. 

Description: The amalgamator at gold mines prepares amalgamation plates 
to receive the gold-bearing pulp from stamps. He regulates the flow of 
water and ore, and at regular intervals collects the mercury-gold amal- 
gam from the mortar, sluices, and plates. 

Qualifications: Good health; good eyesight; honesty; ordinary ability. Ex- 
perience as a stamp man or at other employment at a stamp mill. A 
fair knowledge of ore milling is a valuable asset. 

Schooling: Common school. 

ANALYST. (See Assayer.) 

ASSAYER, METAL MINE AGAIN 

Kindred Occupations: Laboratory aid; Sampler. 

Description: The work of the assayer consists of a partial or complete 
analysis of ores by either fire or wet methods, as the case requires. 

Qualifications: The assayer requires a fair knowledge of inorganic chem- 
istry, mineralogy, and ore sampling, and experience in an assay labora- 
tory. Careful work is necessary, as correct results are absolutely essen- 
tial. He should be a graduate of a recognized technical school, although 
one may be proficient in fire assaying after three or four years' experi- 
ence in a laboratory under the direction of an experienced assayer. He 
should have good health and good eyesight. Experience as laboratory 
aid or sampler or other work connected with the ordinary assay office 
is required. 

Schooling: High school supplemented by a thorough course in chemistry 
and assaying in a recognized technical school. 

ASSISTANT MINER. (See Machine helper, coal mine and metal mine.) 

(13) 



14 

ATTDITOR. (See Accountant, mine.) 

BANK BOSS. (See Pit boss; also Foreman, coal mine.) 

BAKKSHAN. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

BAEW BOSS. (See Stable boss.) 

BARN MAN. (See Stable boss.) 

BARROW MAN. ( See . Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

BARROW MAN. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

BLASTER. (See Shot firer.) 

BOOKKEEPER. (See Accountant, mine.) 

BOSS. (See Driver boss; Pire boss; Pit boss; Shift boss; Stable boss.) 

BOSS MINER, COAL MINE BOND 

Kindred Occupations: Assistant miner; Miner; Miner's helper. 

Description: The boss miner is a contract miner who takes a contract from 
the mining company or owner of the property to produce coal at a certain 
price per ton. The boss miner may In turn employ other miners and 
assistants to do the actual mining work under his supervision and 
instruction. He frequently has a partner, and then does not employ 
anyone. 

Qualifications : He should be a thoroughly experienced miner ; should have 
good health ; physical strength ; ordinary ability. He should have had 
experience as a practical miner. Some State laws require a certificate 
as to experience, etc. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 

BOTTOM CAGER. (See Bottomer; Cager.) 
BOTTOM DIGGER. (See Brusher.) 

BOTTOMER BOOK 

Kindred Occupations: Cage tender; Laborer; Skip tender; Station tender. 

Description: The bottomer is stationed at a shaft or a slope landing under- 
ground. He takes off the empty cars as they are lowered to his particular 
level, pushes the loaded cars on the cage, and signals to the hoisting 
engineer. (See Cager; also Laborer, underground, coal and metal mines.) 

Qualifications: Physical strength and endurance; good eyesight; good 
hearing; experience as laborer, underground, with a knowledge of mine 
signals, rules, and regulations. 

Schooling: Ability to read and write is desirable. 

BRADDISHER. (See Brattice man.) 

BRAKEMAN. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

BRAKEMAN. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

BRATTICE MAN^ COAL MINE BOOTY 

Kindred Occupation: Repair man. 

Description: The brattice man usually works under the direction of the 
fire boss, constructing brattices of wood, canvas, stone, brick, or cement 
for conducting the air current through the proper channels to the working 



15 

face. He should have a fair knowledge of rough carpentry, and masonry, 
and be a general all-round man. The fire boss frequently acts s brttlce 
man. 

Qualifications : Physical strength ; good eyesight ; good hearing ; keen sense 
of smell ; average ability. He should have had experience as an under- 
ground employee and should have some knowledge of ventilation and 
mine gases. 

Schooling : Should have a common school education. 

BREAKER BOY, COAL MINE BORAX 

Kindred Occupation: Laborer. 
Description: The duties of the breaker boy are simply to pick slate and 

bony coal from the coal as it passes by him, either on a moving belt or a 

gravity incline. 
Qualifications : Endurance ; good eyesight ; quickness ; ordinary ability. 

BREAKER HAN, ORE HILXIN6. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 

BBXTSHER, GOAL MINE BOTH 

Kindred Occupations : Assistant miner ; Laborer ; Repair man ; Timberman. 

Description: The brusher takes down any loose rock which is liable to fall 

and removes any excess or accumulated rock from the main haulage and 

travel ways. In case the roof is too low it is his duty to brush down or 

remove such part of the roof as may be necessary. In the event that it 

is easier to remove the bottom, he simply lowers the track the required 

amount by removing the clay, earth, or rock underneath. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; good hearing; good eyesight; ordinary 

ability. He should have had experience as a mine laborer or miner. 

BTTCKER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

CAGER CITY 

Kindred Occupation: Laborer. 

Description: The eager or dumper is stationed at the top of the shaft (or 
at an intermediate level), and his duties are to take the loaded mine 
cars off the cage, dump them, and replace them with empties. He is also 
familiar with mine-shaft signals, and it is his duty to see that the gates 
or doors at the shaft top are closed in order to insure the greatest safety 
possible. The man performing similar work at the bottom of the shaft is 
usually called a bottomer or bottom eager. Frequently the eager accom- 
panies the cage or skip and aids in loading and unloading at all shaft 
stations. In some mines signaling to the hoistman is done exclusively 
by the eager. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; endurance; good eyesight; good hearing; 
average ability. He must have a knowledge of mine rules and regula- 
tions, and particularly of the shaft signals, and should have worked as 
laborer, pusher, or trammer. 

Schooling: Must be able to read and write. 

CAGE TENDER. (See Cager.) 

CANVAS MAN, COAL MINE. (See Brattice man.) 

CAR DROPPER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

CAR DROPPER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

CAR RIDER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 



16 

CAR TKIMMEB.. (Sec laborer, -underground, coal mine.) 
CHAIN BOY. (See laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
CHAIN RUNNER. (See laborer, underground, eoal mine.) 

CHANGE HOUSE MAN CIVIC 

Kindred Occupations: Handy man; Laborer. 

Description: The change house man is in charge of the building in which 
the miners change their clothes when going to or from work. His 
work includes keeping the building clean, ventilated and neated, and to 
see that water is available for bathing purposes at all times for the 
miners. 

Qualifications: Ordinary ability. No, special training is required. The 
place is often filled by crippled or disabled miners, or other laborers 
who can not 'do heavy manual work. 

CHARGEMAN. (See Shot firer.) 

CHECK FULLER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

CHECK PULLER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

CHECK VIEWER. (See Laborer, underground; also surface, coal mine.) 

CHECK VIEWER. (See Laborer, undergTound; metal mine.) 

CHECKWEIGHER. (See Laborer, underground; also surface, coal mine.) 

CHECKWEIGHER. (See Laborer, underground; metal mine.) 

CHEMIST. (See Assay er, metal mine.) 

CHIPPER, (See Laborer, surface, metal mine; also Ore dresser.) 

CHUTE MAN. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

CLEAN-UP MAN. (See Waste man.) 

CLIPPER-OPF. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

CXIPPER-OFF. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

CLIPPER-ON. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

CLIPPER-ON. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

COAL CUTTER. (See Miner, coal.) 

COAL DIGGER. (See Miner, coal.) 

COAL GETTER. (See Miner, coal.) 

COAL HEWER. (See Miner, coal.) 

GOAL PASSER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

COAL TRIMMER. (See Laborer, underground; also surface, coal mine.) 

COAL WHIPPER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

COBBER MAN, ORE MILLING. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 

CONTRACT MAN, COAL MINE. (See Boss miner.) 



17 

CONTRACT MINER. (See Boss miner.) 

COFFER FICKER. (See laborer, surface, metal mine.) 

CORE-DRILL OFERATOR. (See Driller, diamond; also Well driller.) 

COXTFLER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

COUPLER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

CRUSHER MAN. (See Mill man.) 

CUTTER. (See Miner, coal.) 

DEFUTY SURVEYOR. (See Mineral surveyor.) 

DIAMOND SETTER DEBIT 

Description: The diamond setter sets diamonds In drill bits as for diamond 

drills. 
Qualifications: The work is very exacting and requires care and skill in 
embedding the diamonds in the steel bit. He must have a thorough 
knovsrledge of working metals and be a good mechanic. He should have 
had experience with an expert diamond setter to gain necessary 
knowledge of this art. Good eyesight, honesty, and average ability are 
necessary. 
Schooling: Common school. 

DIGGER. (See Miner, coal.) 

DILLY BOY. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

DIJiLY BOY. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

DIRT SCRATCHER. (See Brusher.) 

DOOR TENDER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

DOOR TRAFFER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

DRILLER, DIAMOND DEBT 

Kindred Occupations: Well borer; Well sinker. 

Description: The diamond driller should have the same qualifications as de- 
scribed under well driller, and, in addition, he should have a Ijhorough 
knowledge of the diamond or core drill and be able to set the diamonds 
in the bit and keep the bit in proper repair. The bit being expensive, 
intelligence and skill are required in keeping it in proper condition to 
prevent the loss of diamonds. 

auallfications; Good health; good eyesight; average ability; honesty. He 
should have bad experience in the handling of churn and core drills, 
blacksmithing, and machine-shop practice. 

Schooling: Common school. The education gained in a trade school would 
also be of much value. 

DRILLER, HAND DECAY 

Kindred Occupations: Miner; Miner's helper. 

Description: The hand driller is one who works with hand drills. The 
operation consists of holding the driU with one hand and striking with a 
medium-weight hammer in the other hand. The expert driller is able to 
drill uppers (vertical holes driven upward) as well as holes in a hori- 
zontal or downward position. 
87505"— 18 3 



18 

Qualifications: Physical strength; good eyesight. To become an expert 
driller requires not only physical strength, but a knowledge of blasting 
so as to set or place holes in a position which will be most efficient when 
the shots are fired. 

DRILLER, MACHINE DECK 

Kindred Occupations: Hand driller; Miner. 

Description: The machine driller, together with his assistant, sets the drill 
or machine in proper position ^t the working face for the purpose of drill- 
ing holes to be later charged with explosives for breaking rock, ore, or 
coal. Since the majority of the machines are operated by compressed air, 
steam, or electricity, the driller must have a fair knowledge of machinery 
and be able to adjust and make ordinary repairs when necessary. 

ftualifioations : Physical strength ; good health ; good eyesight ; good hear- 
ing; ordinary ability. He should have a knowledge of mine rules and 
regulations and should have a knowledge of explosives so as to be able 
to place holes properly. He should have had experience in underground 
work, such as trammer, shoveler, hand driller, assistant miner, or ma- 
chine helper. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 

DRILLER, WELL. (See Well driller.) 

DRIVER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

DRIVER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

DRIVER BOSS DIARY 

Kindred Occupations: Driver. 

Description: The driver boss is in charge of the boys or men who are 
driving mules or horses for the haulage of coal or rock underground; 
at small mines he also has charge of the horses and stables. 

Qualifications : Good health ; good eyesight ; good hearing ; ordinary ability ; 
ability to handle men. He should have had experience in the handling 
and taking care of horses ; also experience as laborer, driver, or repair 
man underground to become thoroughly acquainted with underground 
working conditions. 

Schooling: Common school. 

DRY BOSS. (See Change house man.) 

DRY MAN. (See Change house man.) 

DTIKEY RIDER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

DUMPER. (See Cager; also Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

EFFICIENCY MINER. (See Boss miner.) 

ENGINEER, METALLURGICAL ELDER 

Kindred Occupations: Chemist; Mining engineer. 

Description: The field of employment covered by the metallurgical engi- 
neer is wide to the extent that it has developed into a number of spe- 
cialists, as copper metallurgists, iron metallurgists, lead metallurgists, 
etc., and metallographers of iron and steel and the various alloys. 
In general he has a wide experience in assaying, ore sampling, ore 
analysis, blast-furnace practice, and various metallurgical processes, as 
cyaniding, flotation, etc., together with more or less administrative work 



19 

connected with metallurgical operations. The metallurgical engineer 
usually receives his instructions from the mine manager, and it devolves 
upon him to lay out plans for the development of a metallurgical process 
to treat certain grades of ore, including the type of machinery and 
appliances that are to be employed, as well as their installation and 
actual operation. 

Qualifications: Good health; physical endurance; good eyesight; ability to 
handle men and render intelligent reports upon any worls on which he is 
engaged. Experience as laboratory aid, sampler, chemist, and analyst are 
prerequisites to the higher positions of metallurgical engineer, superin- 
tendent, manager, or general manager. 

Schooling: Should be a graduate of a recognized mining or technical school, 
usually a four-years' course. 

ENGINEER, MINING ELECT 

Kindred Occupations: Civil engineer; Geologist; Metallurgical engineer; 
Mine surveyer. 

Description: The field of employment covered by the mining engineer is 
wide to the extent that it has developed into a number of specialists. 
In general he has large experience in mine surveying, topographic work, 
mine examination, geological surveys, together with more or less adminis- 
trative work connected with mining operations. The mining engineer 
usually receives bis instructions from the mine manager and it devolves 
upon him to lay out plans for the development of a mining property and 
adapt mining methods thereto, including the type of machinery and 
appliances that are to be employed. 

Qualifications: Good health; physical endurance; good eyesight; ability to 
handle men and render intelligent reports upon any work upon which lie 
is engaged. Experience as draftsman, surveyor, laboratory aid, shift boss, 
or mine foreman is a prerequisite to the higher positions of mining 
engineer, superintendent, manager, or general manager. 

Schooling: Should be a graduate of a recognized mining school, usually a 
four-years' course. 

ENGINEER, SAFETY , ELEGY 

Kindred Occupations: Foreman; Mining engineer; Surveyor. 

Description: The safety engineer is employed to make examinations and to 
report upon the safety conditions of a mine as regards roof, timbering, 
ventilation, haulage, electricity, machinery, etc. In addition to rendering 
such a report, it devolves upon him to devise ways and means whereby 
any unsafe conditions may be modified or eliminated. He has a thorough 
knowledge of the State mining laws, together with the local mine rules 
and regulations, a l^nowledge of the principles of ventilation, the use of 
explosives, of mining methods, and of all gases usually encountered in 
underground operations. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; good eyesight; good hearing; a keen 
sense of smell ; ordinary ability. Ability to write clear and comprehensive 
reports. He should have had experience in various classes of work in 
and about the mines in order that he may become thoroughly familiar 
with the hazards connected with the industry. 

Schooling; Should be a graduate of an engineering school. 

ENGINEMAN. (See Puffer hoy.) 



20 

ENTRY MAN. (See Miner, coal.) 
FACE BOSS. (See Pit boss.) 

EIEE BOSS, COAI MINE JEIT 

Kindred Occupations : Face boss ; Safety man ; Pit boss. 

Description: It is the duty of the fire boss to examine with a safety lamp 
the underground workings to ascertain if gas is present ; to see that 
doors, brattices, and stoppings are in order, and that ventilation is 
sufficient. Also to examine for unsafe conditions such as loose rock, 
poor timbering, etc. In nongaseous mines, the fire boss frequently does 
not use a safety lamp in making examinations. In general, the examina- 
tion is made before the miners enter the mine. 

Qualifications: Physical strength, particularly in walking fast underground 
with dim light ; good eyesight ; good hearing ; a keen sense of smell ; and 
more than average ability. He should have a thorough knowledge of 
mine rules and regulations and a knowledge of the use and principles 
of the safety lamp. .He should have had experience in various under- 
ground operations, preferably as a miner. He should have a certificate 
from an examining board as to his knowledge of mine gases, ventilation, 
explosives, and timbering. 

Schooling: Common school or better. 

FIREMAN. (See Fire boss.) 

FIRE VIEWER. (See Fire boss.) 

FLAT MAN. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

FLAT TRIMMER. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

FOREMAN, COAL MINE FENCE 

Kindred Occupations: Bank boss; Face boss; Pit boss; Shift boss. 

Description: The foreman has direct charge of a group of miners, has the 
care of all the workingij in his district or level, and reports direct to the 
superintendent or higher officials. Should have a knowledge of mine 
gases, mining methods, mine ventilation, and the use of explosives. 
At the larger mines the position of foreman is comparable with superin- 
tendent at smaller mines, and he has under his direction a number of 
shift bosses (metal mines), or pit bosses (coal mines). 

ftualifications : Physical strength ; good health; more than average ability; 
ability to handle men. He should have large practical experience and a 
general knowledge of coal-mining conditions as to methods, safety re- 
quirements! etc. He should have had experience as pusher, repair man, 
and coal miner, or engineer, and be capable of reading mine maps and 
laying out work at coal mines. He should have a certificate of com- 
petency. 

Schooling: Common or high school. 

FOREMAN, METAL MINE FEND 

Kindred Occupation: Shift boss. 

Description: The foreman has direct charge of a group of miners, has the 
care of all the workings in his district or level, and reports direct to the 
superintendent or higher officials. He should have a knowledge of mine 
gases, mining methods, mine ventilation, and the use of explosives. At 
the larger mines the position of foreman is comparable with superin- 



21 

tendent at smaller mines, and he has under his direction a number of 
shift bosses (metal mines) or pit bosses (coal mines). 

Qualifloations: Physical strength; good health; more than average ability; 
ability to handle men. He should have large practical experience and 
a general knowledge of metal mining methods, safety and other require- 
ments. He should have had actual experience as trammer, repair man, 
miner, or engineer, in worli at metal mines, as, for example, copper, iron, 
gold, silver. 

Schooling: Common or high school. 

GANG RISER. (See laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
GAS INSPECTOR. (See Fire boss; Inspector, coal mine.) 
GAS MAN. (See Eire boss.) 
GENERAL MANAGER. (See Manager.) 
GENERA! SUPERINTENDENT. (See Manager.) 
GREASER. (See Xaborer, underground, coal mine.) 
GREASER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
GROUND MAN. (See Brusher.) 

HANDY MAN HAPPY 

Kindred Occupations: Laborer; Repair man. 

Description: The handy man is either a machine tender or helper. At small 
mines "A jack of all trades," as rigger, millvi'right, and machinist com- 
bined ; also employed to do various kinds of work. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; ordinary ability. He should have had 
experience as laborer or repair man. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 

HAULER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

HAULER. (See Laborer, underground, metal man.) 

HEADSMAN. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

HEAP KEEPER. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

HELPER. (See Handy man; Laborer; Machine helper, coal mine; Machine 
helper, metal mine.) 

HELPER-UP. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

HELPER-UP. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

HITCHER. (See Bottomer; Cager.) 

HITCHER-ON. (See Bottomer; Cager.) 

INSIDE FOREMAN. (See Pit boss; Shift boss.) 

INSPECTOR, COAL MINE ILIUM 

Kindred Occupations: Fire boss; Fireman; Foreman; Safety engineer; 

Safety man. 
Description: The inspector is employed to make examinations and to report 

upon the safety conditions of a mine in regard to the roof, gas, dust. 



.22 

electricity, haulage, ventilation, etc. He has a thorough knowledge of the 
State mining laws, together with the local coal-mine rules and regula- 
tions ; a knowledge of the principles of ventilation, the use of the safety 
lamp, and of explosives. The inspector reports his findings to the fore- 
man, superintendent, or manager, as the condition lequires. In most 
States the coal-mine inspector is required to pass an examination before 
an ofiicial board, at least one member of which is a State mine inspector. 

ftualiflcations : Physical strength; good eyesight; good hearing; a keen 
sense of smell ; a special knowledge of mine gases ; exceptional ability. 
He should have several years' experience in coal mining, or technical 
education supplemented with some underground coal-mining experience. 
He should have had experience as a coal miner, miner's assistant, or 
repair man, in order that he may become thoroughly familiar with under- 
ground operations. He should be a good observer. 

Schooling: Common school. 

INSPECTOR, METAL MINE ILL 

Kindred Occupations: Mine captain; Safety engineer; Surveyor. 

Description: The inspector is employed to make examinations and to report 
upon the safety conditions of a mine as regards roof, timbering, ventila- 
tion, haulage, electricity, etc. He has a thorough knowledge of the State 
mining laws, together with the local mine rules and regulations ; a knowl- 
edge of the principles of ventilation, use pf explosives, and of mining 
methods. The inspector reports his findings to the foreman, superintend- 
ent, or manager, as conditions require. 

ftuallfioations : Physical strength; good eyesight; good hearing; a keen 
sense of smell ; a special knowledge of mine gases ; exceptional ability. 
He should have had experience as an ore miner, miner's assistant, or 
repair man, in order that he may become thoroughly familiar with under- 
ground .operations. He should be a good observer. 

Schooling: Common school, and several years' experience in metal mining; 
a technicnl education, supplemented with some underground metal-mining 
experience. 

7ACK SETTER. (See Machine helper, coal and metal mines; Miner's helper.) 

JERRY MAN. {See Waste man.) 

JIGGER. (See Jig runner.) 

JIG RUNNER JAUNT 

Kindred Occupation: Vanner. 

Description: The jig runner operates a mechanical contrivance known as a 
jig for concentrating ore or for removing slate, rock, and waste jnaterial 
from coal. The operation is practically the same, whether in coal wash- 
ing or ore dressing at metal mines. He should have a sufiBcient knowl- 
edge of machinery to make slight repairs and be able to keep the machines 
in working order. 

Qualifications; Physical strength; good eyesight; average ability. A knowl- 
edge of the principles of ore dressing is desirable. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 

JIG TENDER. (See Jig runner.) 
JIM- AROUND. (See Handy man.) 
JUMP'^R. (See Driller, hand.) 



23 

KIBBLE FILLER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

LABORER, SURFACE, COAL MINE LATER 

As follows: Banksman; Bjiakeman; Check viewer; Check weigher; Coal 

trimmer ; Dumper ; Flat trimmer ; Heap keeper ; Mule skinner ; Shoveler ; 

Stacker; Tally boy; Tipple man; Topman; Trimmer; Whim driver, etc. 

Description: The duties of a surface laborer are to push mine cars; shove 

coal, earth, and rock ; excavate ; lay surface car tracks ; handle material 

(coal, mine timbers, machinery, etc.) ; attend to loading of coal at bins, 

and such other unskilled labor as may be necessary at the surface works 

of coal mines. 

ftualifications: Physical strength; endurance; a willingness to work on the 

surface at coal mines. Experience according to the assignment. 

Note. — It is understood that if an order is placed under the code word 

indicating laborers at the surface works of coal mines, the employer 

will give the, necessary training for the particular work assigned and 

Instruct the workmen in the mining rules for safety and conduct. 

LABORER, SURFACE, METAL MINE LATH 

As follows: Brakeman; Chipper; Cobber man; Copper picker; Launder 
man ; Mule skinner ; Ore sorter ; Pit man ; Roll man ; Shoveler ; Tally 
shouter ; Top eager ; Topman ; Whim driver, etc. 
Description: The duties of the surface laborer are to push mine cars, shove 
ore and rock, excavate, lay surface car tracks, handle material (coal, 
mine timbers, machinery, etc.), attend to loading of ore at bins, sort ore, 
and such other unskilled manual labor as may be necessary at the sur- 
face works of metal mines. 
Qualifications: Physical strength and endurance.; a willingness to work on 
the surface at metal mines. Experience according to the assignment. 
Note. — It is understood that if an order is placed under the code word 
indicating laborers at the surface works of metal mines, the employer 
will give the necessary training for the particular work assigned and 
instruct the workmen in the mining rules for safety and conduct. 

LABORER, UNDERGROUND, COAL MINE LATHE 

As follows : Barrow man ; Brakeman ; Bucker ; Car dropper ; Car rider ; 
Car trimmer ; Chain boy ; Chain runner ; Check puller ; Check viewer ; 
Check weigher ; Clipper-off ; Clipper-on ; Coal passer ; Coal trimmer ; Coal 
whipper ; Coupler ; Dilly boy ; Door tender ; Door trapper ; Driver ; Dukey 
rider ; Flat man ; Gang rider ; Greaser ; Hauler ; Headsman ; Helper-up ; 
Kibble filler ; Load dropper ; Loader ; Mule driver ; Mule skinner ; Oiler ; 
Patcher ; Pig taller ; Pitcher ; Pusher ; Putter ; Rider ; Rope rider ; Run- 
ner ; Set rider ; Shoveler ; Snapper ; Spragger ; Tally boy ; Tally shouter ; 
Timber packer; Topman; Trailer; Train boy; Trapper; Trapper boy; 
Trip rider ; Tub rider ; Tvdn boy ; Wagoner ; Wheeler ; Whipper, etc. 
Description: The duties are to push cars, shovel coal, rock, or earth, tend 
doors, assist in track laying, in mine timbering, and such other work as is 
indicated by the occupatipn name, or as is necessary about a mine, that 
does not require a long period of training. 
Qualifications: Physical strength and endurance and a willingness to work 
underground. Experience according to the assignment. 
Note. — It is understood that if a specification is placed under the code 
word indicating laborers in a, coal mine, the employer will give the 



24 

necessary training for tbe particular worl? assigned and instruct the 
workmen in the mining rules for safety and conduct. 

lABOREE, TJNDERGROUKD, METAI MINE LATIN 

As follows: Barrow man; Brakeman ; Car dropper; Check puller; Check 

viewer; Check weigher; Chute man; Clipper-off^ Clipper-on; Coupler; 

DlUy boy; Driver; Greaser; Hauler; Helper-up; Loader; Load dropper; 

Mucker ; Mule driver ; Mule skinner ; MuUocker ; Nipper ; Oiler ; Pig 

taller ; Pusher ; Ruller ; Shoveler ; Steel boy ; Swamper,; Tally boy ; Tally 

■shouter ; Tool nipper ; Trailer ; Trammer ; Truller ; Wagoner ; Wheeler, etc. 

Description: The duties are to push cars, shovel rock, or earth, load cars, 

tend doors, assist in track laying, in mine timbering, and such other work 

as is indicated by the occupation name, or as is necessary about a mine, 

that does not require a long period of training, 
ftnaliflcations; Physical strength and endurance and a willingness to work 

underground. Experience according to the assignment. 

Note. — It is understood that if an order is placed under the code word 

indicating laborers in a metal mine, the employer will give the necessary 

training for the particular work assigned and instruct the workmen in 

the mining rules for safety and conduct. 

LAMP CLEANER. (See Lamp man.) 
LAMP KEEPER. (See Lamp man.) 

LAMP MAN, COAL MINE LATTD 

Kindred Occupations: Handy man ; Repairman. 

Description: The lamp man has charge of the safety lamps at a 
coal mine. It is his duty to clean, repair, and test lamps when necessary, 
in order that they may be in good, safe working condition. He also 
charges electric safety lamps when used in the mine. In very 
gaseous mines, he delivers the lamps lighted and locked to the miner, 
who must return them to him in the same condition, or in the event that 
the light goes out, the lamp must be returned to the lamp man and 
lighted outside of the mine, or at a designated station underground. 
In addition to attending to lamps, the lamp man frequently keeps account 
of the men underground through use of a checking system whereby each 
man as he enters the mine is given a numbered check which is registered 
against his name. 

Qualifications: Dependability; good health; good eyesight; average ability. 
He should have had experience as a miner in gaseous mines, and should 
have a good knowledge of the hazards of mine gases, and be in general 
a handy man. 

Schooling: Common school or better. 

LAMP REPAIRER. {See Lamp man.) 

LANDER. (See eager.) 

LAUNDER MAN, ORE MILLING. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine; also Mill 
man.) 

LOAD DROPPER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

LOAD DROPPER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

LOADER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

LOADER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 



25 

UACHIHE HELPER, COAL MINE HEAD 

Kindred Occupations: Brusher; Laborer; Pusher; 'ihoveler; Repairman. 

Description: The machine helper is employed to assist in the operation of 
the coal-cutting machine, and it Is- his duty to look after the jack, and 
assist in moving and adjusting the machine to proper position for under- 
cutting the coal. He also does sufficient shoveling to clear the worklhg 
face of any loose coal that might interfere with the operation of the 
machine. He also looks after the roof conditions and when necessary 
places temporary props to support a loose or dangerous roof. He also 
shovels the machine cuttings back to clean the machine and working place. 

Qualifications : Pliysical strength ; good eyesight ; good hearing ; ordinary 
ability. He should have had experience underground as pusher,, shoveler, 
or as repair man at coal mines, and should have a knowledge of mine 
rules and regulations. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 

UACHINE HELPER, UETAL MINE MEAL 

Kindred Occupations : Handy man ; Mucker ; Trammer. 
Description: Similar to machine helper at coal mines except that a machine 

helper at metal mines handles rock drills. 
Qualifications: Physical strength; good eyesight; good hearing; ordinary 

ability. He should have a knowledge of mine rules and regulations and 

should have had experience underground as trammer, miner, mucker, or 

repairman at metal mines. 
Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 

MACHINE MAN, COAL MINE MEALY 

Kindred Occupations: Assistant miner; Machine helper; Miner. 

Description: The machine man is one who operates a coal-cutting machine 
which undercuts the coal preliminary to breaking down the coal. He 
may also operate a machine drill. Since coal-mlnlng machines are oper- 
ated by compressed air, or electricity, he should have a fair knowledge 
of machinery and be able to make proper adjustments and ordinary re- 
pairs when necessary. He usually has one assistant. (See also Driller, 
machine. ) 

Qualifications: Physical strength; good health; good eyesight; good hear- 
ing; ordinary ability. He should have a knowledge of mine rules and 
regulations and should have had experience in various coal-mining opera- 
tions as pusher, shoveler, assistant miner, and repair man. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 

MACHINE MINER. (See Driller, machine; Machine man.) 
MACHINE MINER'S ASSISTANT. (See Handy man; Machine helper.) 
MACHINE RUNNER. (See Driller, machine; Machine man.) 
MACHINE TENDER. (See Handy man; Machine helper.) 



MANAGER 



MEAN 



Kindred Occupation: Mining engineer. 

Description: The terms manager, superintendent, general mannger, and 
general superintendent are more or less synonymous, but usage varies 
in different localities. In general, he has control and supervision of a 
mine, both underground and above, in an administrative capacity; he 



26 

also has supervision of the local finances of the mine, and attends to the 
sales of the mineral products, unless otherwise provided for. 

Qualifications: Good health; administrative ability; ability to handle labor. 
He should have had experienee as foreman, surveyor, mining engineer, 
or assistant superintendent. 

Schooling: High school, with several years' mining experience; or gradu- 
ate engineer with experience in mining and administrative work. 

HATERIAIi HAN. (See Warehouseman.) 
Ii:ETALLTTIt,QIST. (See Engineer, metallurgical.) 

MIIL MAN, ORE DRESSING MEAT 

Kindred Occupations : Crusher man ; Jigger ; Jig runner ; Launder man ; 
Roll man ; Screen man ; Tailings man ; Vanner man. 

Description: The mill man is employed in ore-dressing mills or plants. 
His duties are to see that the properly crushed ore is distributed and fed 
to the various types of machines, as jigs, vanners, tables, buddies, and 
settlers. He has a fair knowledge of machinery of various types and 
more or less mechanical ability so that he is able to make proper ad- 
justments and slight repairs when needed. He has a fair knowledge of 
mineralogy and the principles of ore dressing. 

Qualifications: Good health; good eyesight; average ability. With only a 
common school education, the mill man should have had experience in 
an ore-dressing plant, in order to gain the necessary knowledge to oper- 
ate the various machines satisfactorily. The technical graduate with 
his laboratory experience should be able to become a skilled mill man in 
a few months. 

Schooling: Common school; high school; technical school. 

MINE CAPTAIN, METAL MINE MEATY 

Description: A mine captain at large mines has usually under his direction 
a number of mine bosses or shift bosses and gives orders to them for 
carrying out the work in the mine or the shop connected therewith. He 
has a knowledge of mine gases, ventilation, haulage systems, mining 
machinery, and ability to direct any of the work connected with the 
operation of the mine. 
Qualifications : Physical strength ; more than average ability ; ability to 
handle men. He should have had experience as miner or shift boss. A 
knowledge of engineering, while not indispensable, is desirable. 
Schooling: Common school or better. 

MINE CLERK. (See Timekeeper.) 

MINE EXAMINER. (See Inspector, coal mine; Inspector, metal mine; Fire 
boss.) 

MINE EXPERT. (See Engineer, mining.) 

MINE FOREMAN. (See Foreman, coal mine; Foreman, metal mine.) 

MINE INSPECTOR. (See Engineer, safety; Fire boss; Inspector, coal mine; 
Inspector, metal mine.) 

MINE LABORER. (See Laborer.) 

MINE MANAGER. (See Foreman, coal mine.) 



27 

JaNERAI STIRVEYOB MEIT 

Kindred Occupations : Engineer ; Mining engineer ; Surveyor. 
Description: The work of the mineral surveyor consists of surveying and 
marking boundaries of mining claims, and preparing accurate maps 
thereof for filing with the V. S. Land Office of the district wherein the 
mining property is situated. The actual work involves plane surveying 
and hence is ho different from that of the ordinary surveyor except that 
the mineral surveyor does his work under permit or appointment from 
the general or iqcal land office. He should have had experience as a 
rodman, chainman, draftsman, and transit man under the direction of 
an experienced surveyor. He should have physical strength, endurance 
in walking, good eyesight, and higher than average ability. 
Schooling: Technical or engineering school. 

UINEB,, BOSS. (See Boss miner, coal mine.) 

KINEK, COAL HINE UEDAL 

Kindred Occupations: Helper; Shoveler. 

Description : The miner is engaged in getting out coal by undercutting with 
pick or machine and breaking the coal down with wedges, pick, or 
explosives. He is familiar with machine drills, coal-cutting machines, 
the use of explosives, and has a knowledge of the hazardous conditions 
connected with the industry, especially of gas and dust. 

aualifications : Physical strength ; endurance ; good eyesight ; good hearing ; 
ordinary ability. He should have had experience underground in various 
classes of work as pusher, repairman, brusher, or assistant miner at coal 
mines. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write sufficient to understand and 
observe mine rules and regulations, with special regard for safety 
measures. 

KINEB, UETAL UINE KEEK 

Kindred Occupations: Driller; Helper; Mucker. 

Description: The work of the miner in metal mines consists of driving 
drifts, tunnels, adits, and crosscuts; sinking shafts and winzes and put- 
ting up raises in various rock formations, and getting out Ore from 
which the metals are extracted. It requires a thorough knowledge of 
the use of drills, both hand and machine, the use of explosives, and 
ability to be able to learn quickly the various kinds of ore encountered, 
and to place timbers for support of roof or walls. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; endurance; good eyesight; good hearing; 
ordinary ability. He should have experience underground in various 
classes of work, as trammer, mucker, repairman, timberman, assistant 
miner at metal mines, such as copper, iron, gold, silver, etc. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write and to observe mine rules 
and regulations with special reference to safety measures. 

lUNEE'S HELPER, METAL MINE MELEE 

Kindred Occupations: Mucker; Trammer. 
Description. (See Miner's helper, coal mine; also Machine helper, metal 

mine.). 

aualifications: Good health; physical strength; good hearing; good eye- 
sight; ordinary ability. He should have had some experience under- 
ground as a laborer, trammer, mucker, or repairman at metal mines. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 



28 

MINE SAMPLER. (See Sampler.) 

MOTORMAN, ELECTRIC MELON 

Kindred Occupations: Engineman on either portable or stationary engines. 

Description: The motorman is to the electric motor what the steam en- 
gineer is to the locomotive or stationary steam engine. He operates the 
motor in the haulage of mine cars, and while a ttiorough knowledge 
of electricity is of importance it is not absolutely essential. He should, 
however, have sufficient knowledge to be thoroughly aware of the dangers 
connected with the occupation. 

ftualifications : Physical strength; good eyesight; good hearing; alertness 
and good judgment. He should have had experience in some work con- 
nected with the mine, as driver, repairman, helper, etc., in order that 
he may have a thorough knowledge of underground work. 

Schooling: Common school or better. 

MUCKER. (iS^ee Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

MULE DRIVER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

MULE DRIVER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

MULE FEEDER. (See Stable boss.) 

MULE SKINNER. (See Laborer, underground; also surface, coal mine.) 

MULE SKINNER. (See Laborer, underground; also surface, metal mine.) 

MULLOCKER. (See Lkborer, underground, metal mine.) 

NIPPER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

ODD MAN. (See Handy man.) 

OILER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

OILER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

ON-SETTER. (See Bottomer; Cager.) 

OPERATING ENGINEER. (See Pumpman, deep well.) 

ORE DRESSER OBIT 

Kindred Occupations: See list under millman. 

Description: The work of the ore dresser is varied, but in general it re- 
solves itself into either hand or mechanical preparation of ore as it comes 
from the mine, the object being to reject the waste material and select 
the portions carrying valuable minerals ; also to separate two or more 
valuable minerals which occur together. Usually the preliminary work 
consists in hand sorting of the ore, while the mechanical operation con- 
sists in the use of jigs, vanners. tables, etc., whereby the ore is con- 
centrated and the gangue material eliminated. 

Qualifications: Good health; good eyesight; ordinary ability. He should 
have had experience at mines or in ore-dressing plant. 

Schooling : Should be able to read and write. 



29 

ORE SORTER. (See laborer, surface, metal mine.) 

• 

PACE BTJILSER, COAI MINE PET 

Kindred Occupation: Laborer. 
Description: The pack builder stows away material in worked-out rooms 

and also places stone piers, columns, or walls for supporting the roof or 

for preventing waste material from falling or sliding into the haulage 

ways. 
Gualifications: Physical strength; good eyesight; good hearing; ordinary 

ability. He should have had experience as laborer in a mine. 
Schooling: Should have sufficient education to comprehend mine rules aiW 

regulations. 

PACKER. (See Pack builder.) 

PATCHER. (See laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

PICKER. (See Breaker boy.) 

PIG TAILER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

PIG- TAILER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

PILLAR BOSS. (See Pit boss.) 

PILLAR HAN. (See Pack builder.) 

PIPE FITTER. (See Pipe man.) 

PIPE MAN, COAL MINE PETTY 

Kindred Occupation: Repairman. 
Description: The pipe man is a workman engaged in laying or repairing 

pipe for handling compressed air, steam, or water. Often has to act as 

pumpman, 
dualifications : Physical strength; average intelligence; some mechanical 

ability. He should have had experience as a repairman's helper. 
Schooling: Should be able to read and write and to understand and observe 

mine rules and regulations. 

?IP£ MAN, METAL MINE. (See Pipe man, coal mine.) 

PIT BOSS, COAL MINE PEW 

Kindred Occupations : Driver boss ; Miner. 

Description: The pit boss or underground foreman is in direct charge of 
men in a specific portion of the mine. He reports to the foreman or super- 
intendent. He has a practical knowledge of coal mining, timbering, haul- 
age, and the dangers of the industry, especially of gas and coal-dust 
hazards, and can use, store, and handle explosives. One of his duties is 
to look after the safety of the men as well as to secure the maximum pro- 
duction of coal. Synonymous with " shift boss " in metal, mines. 

Qualifications: Physical strength and endurance; ordinary intelligence; abil- 
ity to handle men. He should have had experience as a coal miner or 
other underground coal-mine worker. He should have a certificate of 
competency. 

Schooling: Common school or better. 



30 

FITCHER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
PITMAN. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 
PITMAN. (See Pump man.) 
PIT WRIGHT. (See Pump man.) 
PITT6MAN. (See Pump man.) 

POWDER MAN PHASE 

Kindred Occupations: Handy man; Laborer. 

Description: The powder man is employed at the powder house of a mine 
to deliver explosives, including caps, detonators, fuses, squibs, etc., 
to the miners. He should also see that explosives are properly stored in 
the powder bouse and be able to thaw explosives should occasion require. 
At some of the smaller mines the powder man distributes the powder, 
dynamite, fuses, etc., in person to the miners at the working faces. 

Qualifications: Good health; good eyesight; average ability. He should 
have had experience in mining, quarrying, or other work in which he 
has handled explosives. Should have a thorough knowledge of the haz- 
ards of the occupation. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 

POWDER MONKEY. (See Powder man.) 

POWDER NIPPER. (See Powder man.) 

PROPERTY MAN. (See Warehouseman.) 

PUFFER BOY POUCH 

Description: The work of the puffer boy is the handling and operating of 
small engines used for hauling mine cars or of winding engines for hoist- 
ing purposes on construction work or shallow shaft sinking. 
Qualifications: Physical strength; good hearing; good eyesight; alertness; 
ordinary ability. He should have had experience as operator of a steam 
engine. 
Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 

PUMP MAN, DEEP WELL PHIAI 

Description: The duties of the pump man are the operation and the making 

of minor repairs to the pump and pumping machinery. 
Qualifications: He must have a practical knowledge of the care and ordi- 
nary repair of all classes of gas, oil, or steam engine or motor-driven 
centrifugal and reciprocating pumps, pump governors, and regulators. 
Must be familiar with central-station, power-house, or industrial-plant 
water supply, underground or surface work, or the pumping operation 
incidental to the sinking of wet shafts, draining mines, and be familiar 
with deep well pumping methods and machinery. He should be further 
experienced in making pipe connections, both steam and water. He 
should have had experience as a pump man in connection with a power- 
house pump station or in mine pumping. 

PUSHER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
PUSHER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 



31 

PUTTER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

KEFAIR MAN RATE 

Kindred Occupations: Handy man; Laborer. 

Description: The repair man repairs tracks, doors, brattices, or resets 
timber, etc., under tlie direction of a mine foreman. He sliould be able 
to judge roof conditions and seiect proper timbers to make the roof safe. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; good hearing; good eyesight; ordinary 
ability. He should have had experience sufficient to handle tools and 
do such work as rough carpentry, pipe fitting, track laying, etc. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write and have a knowledge of mine 
rules and regulations. 

RIB BOSS. (See Fit boss.) 

RIDER. (iSee laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

RIPPER. (See Brusher.) 

ROADMAN. (See Repair man; Wasteman.) 

ROCE MAN. (See Brusher.) 

ROLLEY MAN. (See Repair man.) 

ROLL MAN, ORE MILLING. See Laborer, surface, metal mine; also Mill man.) 

ROPE RIDER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

ROXrSTABOUT. (See Handy man.) 

RTTLLER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

RTTNNER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine!) 

SAFETY MAN. (See Engineer, safety.) 

SAMPLER SHAKE 

Kindred Occupations: Laboratory assistant; Surveyor. 

Description: The duties of a sampler are to select average samples of ore, 
coal, or other material from which an assay or analysis may be made to 
determine the character and value of the material sampled. Sampling 
requires care and skill, and the material obtained should be so selected as 
to represent as nearly as possible the true character of the material 
sampled. The sEtmpler usually works under the direction of the superin- 
tendent or mining engineer. The sampler is almost indispensable in 
metal mining but is used only rarely in coal mining. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; good eyesight; good judgment; average 
ability. He should have had some laboratory training in connection 
with actual experience in and about mines, and should be familiar with 
mineralogy. 

Schooling: Common school or better, 'preferably a technical graduate. 

SCREEN APE. (See Screen man.) 

SCREENER. (See Screen man.) 

SCREEN MAN SHAKO 

Kindred Occupations: Laborer; Handy man. 

Description: The screen man attends to the screening and cleaning of coal, 
ore, or other material, kc^ns ''.he screens in order, and when necessary 



- 32 

breaks large pieces of coal or ore which will not pass through, and picks 
out such waste material as he can as the material passes over the 
screen. 
Qualifications : Physical strength ; good eyesight ; average ability. 

SET BISEB. (/See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
SHAFT MAN. (See Sinker.) 
SHAFT SIWKEB. (See Sinker.) 

SHIFT BOSS, METAE MINE SHAKY 

Kindred Occupations : Assistant mine foreman ; Miner ; Surveyor. 

Description: The shift boss is in direct charge of a crew of men in a 
specific part of the mine. He reports to the foreman, or superintendent. 
He has a practical knowledge of ore mining, timbering, haulage, and the 
dangers of the industry, especially in connection with the use, storage, 
and handling of explosives. One of his duties is to look after the safety 
of the men, as well as to secure the maximum production of ore. 
Synonymous with " pit boss " in coal mines. 

ftualifications: Physical strength and endurance; ordinary intelligence; 
ability to handle men. He should have had experience as an ore miner 
or other underground worker at metal mines. He is frequently a young 
technical graduate of a few years' experience. 

Schooling: Common school or better. 

SHIFTEE. (See Bepair man; also Shift boss, metal mine.) 

SHOT FIEEE, COAL MINE SHALL 

Kindred Occupations; Miner; Miner's helper. 

Description: The shot flrer is a man whose special duty it is ,to fire the 
shots or blasts which have been prepared by the miner. Often the miner 
drills the holes only, leaving the shot flrer to charge, tamp, and fire the 
shots. The shots are arranged with fuses sufficiently long that they 
may be fired in sequence, thus enabling the shot flrer to light a number 
of shots at one time, get out of the mine, or to a place of safety before 
the blast occurs. Where electric-shot firing is employed he should be 
familiar with the battery and have a working knowledge of wiring. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; good eyesight and hearing; alertness; 
higher than average ability. He should also have a good knowledge of 
mine ventilation and a knowledge of mine gases and the dangers incident 
to the gases from explosives. The occupation is hazardous and requires 
judgment, care, and skill. He should have had coal-lnining experience 
as a miner's helper or miner, and have a knowledge of underground min- 
ing operations. 

Schooling: Common school or better, with ability to comprehend and ob- 
serve mine rules and regulations, especially those regarding safety. 

SHOT LIGHTEE. (See Shot firer.) 

SHOVELEE. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

SHOVELEE. {See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 

SHOVELEE. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

SHOVELEE. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 



33 

SINGLE TACKER. {See Driller, hand.) 

SINKER SHAH 

Kindred Occupation: Miner. 

Description: The work of the sinker consists in drilling, blasting, and 
excavating rock for the purpose of sinking or completing the mine shaft. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; endurance; good hearing; good eyesight. 
He should have had experience as a timberman and hard-rock miner. The 
work requires an expert knowledge of the use of explosives and skill in 
placing the shots in order that they may be most effective. The work is 
more or less a specialty and is usually performed by the best and most 
experienced miners. While the timbering is frequently done by the 
timberman, the sinker must know when it is properly done. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write and have a fair knowledge of 
ventilation. 

SINK HAN. {See Sinker.) 

SKIP TENDER. (See Cager.) 

SLATE PICKER. {See Breaker hoy.) 

SNAPPER. {See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

SPRAGGER. {See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

SPUD SETTER. (See Mine surveyor.) 

STABLE BOSS SHAME 

Kindred Occupations: Driver; Laborer. 
Description: The stable boss Is in charge of the stables and of the horses 

and mules employed at a mine. He sees that the draft animals are 

properly fed and kept in good condition. 
Qualifications: Physical strength; good eyesight; good hearing; ordinary 

ability. A knowledge of veterinary science is advantageous but not 

essential. He should have had experience as a driver and in the handling 

of horses. 
Schooling: Should be able to read and write and have ability to understand 

and observe mine rules and regulations. 

STACKER. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 

STAMP MAN SHANK 

Kindred Occupations: Mill man; Miner. 

Description: The stamp man looks after the stamps which are used for fine 
crushing of ore. It requires careful attention to see that the ore is 
fed properly to the stamps and also to see that the screens are kept 
open for the passage of the fine material that has been crushed. The 
stamps are subject to considerable wear and it devolves upon the stamp 
man to replace the worn shoes and dies with new ones. 

ttualifications: Good health; good eyesight; honesty; ordinary ability. He 
should have some knowledge of mechanics in order to make necessary 
repairs. 

Schooling: Common school or better. 

STATION TENDER. ' {See Bottomer.) 

STEAM ENGINE MAN. (See Pump man, deep well.) 



34 

STEEL BOY. (See laborer, underground, metal mine.; 

STONE MAN. (See Brusher.) 

SUMP MAN. (See Timberman.) 

SUPERINTENDENT. (See Foreman, metal mine; Manager; Mine captain.) 

SURVEYOR, MINE SIFT 

Kindred Occupations: Civil engineer; General surveyor; Mining engineer. 

Description: The mine surveyor does underground and mine surveying of 
any character. 

Qualifications: The mine surveyor must be a technical civil engineer, prac- 
tical, experienced in general surveying and especially underground or 
mine surveying of all kinds, such as prospecting, exploration, mine and 
tunnel alignment, and must be skilled in the use of transit and reflectors, 
compass and level, and must be familiar with their adjustment and care. 
He must be able to read vertical angles, using prism eyepiece, be experi- 
enced in the use of adjustable leg tripod and in the use of signal lamps, 
tripod lamps, plumb-bob lamps, and angle reading or three-tripod method 
and steel tape for distance in the case of sloping drifts and tunnels. He 
must understand thoroughly the use of prismatic mining transits -for 
vertical lines, long plumb-bob lines, and be able to drop transit points for 
alignment in deep shafts with greatest accuracy for line construction. 
He must be familiar with use of compass and skilled in calculating 
latitudes and departures. Must thoroughly understand underground 
leveling and the use of illuminated rods and cross-section work with 
sunflower cross sectioner. Must be able to make complete and accurate 
sketches and fleld notes. Should understand the use of dip needle and 
magnetic surveys. He should have had experience in field work. 

Schooling: Technical school graduate. 

SWAMPER. (See laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

SUPPLY MAN. (See Warehouseman.) 

TABLE MAN. (See Vanner man; also Millman.) 

TAILINGS MAN, ORE MILLING. (See Millman.) 

TALLY BOY. (See Laborer, underground; also surface, coal mine.) 

TALLY BOY. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

TALLY SHOUTER. (See Laborer, underground; also surface, coal mine.) 

TALLY SHOUTER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

TIMBERMAN TESTY 

Kindred Occupations: Carpenter; Handy man; Repair man. 
Description: The timberman cuts and sets timbers, supports, ladders, cribs, 
and chutes in and about a mine shaft, tunnel, slope, drift, or other 
places. 



35 

Qualifications: Physical strength; good eyesight; judgment; average 
ability. He should have had some experience in any class of heavy, rough 
carpentry work. This work requires some knowledge of the strength of 
timbers and ability to cut, miter, mortise and tenon heavy timbers so that 
they may be properly joined to make a substantial framework. He must 
also be able to judge roof conditions, and be able to decide as to the 
amount of timber necessary to make working conditions- safe. 

Schooling: Common school or better, with ability to read blue prints and 
lay out work for assistants to execute. 

XIUBEB PACKER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

TIMEKEEPER TEXAS 

Kindred Occupations: Bookkeeper; Mine foreman; Warehouseman. 

Description: The timekeeper keeps a complete list of all employees and 
in the case of small mines makes at least two trips through the mine 
workings each day and thus keeps a record of all men at work. In the 
larger mines the shift boss usually turns in to the timekeeper a record 
of the men under his immediate supervision. At other mines, where the 
checking system is in use, the timekeeper records the checks against 
the individual names, and from his records he prepares the pay-roll 
statement either weekly or fortnightly, as the case may require. 

Qualifications: Good health; good eyesight; good hearing; quickness and 
accuracy in figuring; ordinary ability. He should have had some ex- 
perience as bookkeeper or office man. 

Schooling: Common school or better; business college. 

TIPPLE HAS. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 
TOOL NIPPER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
TOP CAGER. (See Cager.) 
TOPHAN. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 
TOPMAN. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 
TRACKLAYER. (See Trackman.) 

TRACKMAN THAN 

Kindred Occupations: Repair man; Laborer; Handy man. 
Description: A trackman in both coal and metal mines lays and repairs all 

mine car tracks, and also looks after and installs any trackage which 

may be required for extending the haulage roads to the working face, 
aualifications: Physical strength; endurance; good eyesight; good hearing; 

average ability. He should have had some experience as repaiif man'or 

assistant on track work. 
Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 

TRAILER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

TRAILER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

TRAIN BOT. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 

TRAMMER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 

TRAPPER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 



36 

TRAPPER BOY. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
TRIUMER. (See laborer, surface, coal mine.) 
TRIP RISER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
TRTJLLER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
TITB RISER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
TWIN BOY. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
tmSERGROTJNB FOREMAN. (See Pit boss; Shift boss.) 

VANNER MAN VALIB 

Kindred Occupations: Jigger; Jig runner. 

Description: The vannei operates a machine called a " vanner," of which 
there are .several types for concentrating the metallic products in the 
ore and recovering them from the waste and gangue material. The work 
requires care and skill in operating, as the machine requires careful adjust- 
ment both as to motion, speed, and the flow of water needed. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; good eyesight; average ability. Sufficient 
knowledge may be gained to operate the machine after a few months' 
work as an assistant. 

Schooling: Common school or better. 

WAGONER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
WAGONER. (See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
WALLER. (See Pack builder.) 

WAREHOUSEMAN WANT 

Kindred Occupations; Store clerk; Bookkeeper; Property clerk. 

Sescription: The warehouseman has charge of storing, keeping, distrib- 
uting, and issuing supplies upon requisition for use in and about the 
mines. These supplies consist of heavy hardware, miners' clothes, lamps, 
and such articles as are usually found in a general or company store. 

Qualifications: Special knowledge of mining machinery is desirable; ordi- 
nary strength and intelligence. He should have such experience as 
would be obtained by working in a hardware or general merchandise 
store. 

Schooling: Common school or better. 

WASHHOTJSE MAN. (See Change house man.) 

WASTE MAN WAR 

"Kindred Occupations: Brattice man; Laborer; Pack builder; Pusher; Shov- 
eler. 

Sescription: The waste man looks after and keeps clean the airways of a 
mine, and keeps the walls or brattices in proper condition for the circu- 
lation of mine air. It is also his duty to see that the roads are kept clean 
and open so that haulage may not be interfered with by reason of fallen 
material. 

Qualifications: Physical strength; good eyesight; keen sense of smell; ordi- 
nary ability. He should have had some experience as laborer in and 
about the mine. 

Schooling: Should be able to read and write. 



37 

WELI DRIIIER WAIT 

Kindred Occupations: Artesian well driller; Oil well driller. 
Description: The duty of tlie well driller is the operation of portable or 

semiportable churn-type well-drilling outfits. 
Qualifications: Must be thoroughly experienced and conversant with 
methods and apparatus for drilling up to 500 feet and holes up to 8 or 
10 inches. Must be capable of moving, locating, setting up, and operating, 
driving or drawing casing, sealing, and capping. Must be able to recover 
casing, or fish for tools, and must be skilled in dressing tools, able to run 
gasoline, oil, or steam-engine equipments, and make all field repairs, and 
able to operate in difficult locations or under unfavorable conditions. 
Should be able to drill 6 or 8 inch holes for churn-drlU blasting opera- 
tions, for quarry or breaking of ore. Should have a knowledge of shoot- 
ing wells and experience with Star or Cyclone outfits. Should have had 
experience at oil-well general drilling or artesian-well drilling. 

WHEELEB. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.) 
WHEELER. {See Laborer, underground, metal mine.) 
WHIM DRIVER. (See Laborer, surface, coal mine.) 
WHIU DRIVER. (See Laborer, surface, metal mine.) 
WHIFFER. (See Laborer, underground, coal mine.)